Based on the GGDC-B type silicon photocell comprehensive experimental instrument, the basic characteristics of silicon photocells were studied. Through our experiments, it is concluded that as the illumination increases, the output voltage and current of the silicon photocell gradually increase. In a certain range of illumination, as the load resistance increases gradually, the output current is still linear with the illumination. The smaller the resistance of the load, the larger the range in which the output current is linear with the illumination. In the visible range, the sensitivity of a silicon photocell increases with increasing wavelength.